Finland

Index rank 13

Balance Score

ABB

Energy Sustainability Index Rankings and Balance Score

 2011  2012  2013  Trend Score
Energy Performance  13  14  17   
Energy Security  22  25  37  B
Energy Equity  16  20  21  A
Environmental Sustainability  44  49  45  B
         
Contextual Performance  7  7  6   
Political Strength  2  1  2   
Societal Strength  1  1  1   
Economic Strength  32  35  34   
         
Overall Rank  11  11  13  ABB
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Fossil Fuel Reserves

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Key Metrics

Industrial sector (% of GDP) 27.1
TPEP / TPEC  (net energy importer) 0.35
Emission intensity (kg CO2 per USD) 0.31
Energy affordability (USD per kWh) 0.19
GDP / capita (PPP, USD); GDP Group 35,994 (I)
Energy intensity (million BTU per USD) 0.20
CO2 emissions (metric tons CO2 per capita) 10.06
Population Access to Electricity (%) 100.0
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Index Commentary

Finland slips two places this year to an overall rank of 13, mostly due to a drop in energy security. As a consistent top performer in the Index, Finland continues to balance the three sides of the energy trilemma well. The decline in energy security is mostly driven by the slowing decline of the energy consumption growth rate and an increased reliance on fuel imports. Energy equity performance continues to be strong, although there is a slight increase in household expenditures on electricity. Environmental sustainability, Finland’s weakest energy dimension, sees increases in CO2 emissions from electricity generation. Performance on contextual indicators remains excellent, although economic strength stays lower than societal and political strength due to the high cost of living.

Trends and Outlook

Even though Finland’s electricity fuel mix still shows a large share of conventional thermal power generation, it has to be noted that three-quarters of that figure is combined heat and power production. This should not be viewed as conventional because it reaches efficiency ratios up to two times compared to conventional thermal generation.

Recent energy policy developments in Finland include: 1) a proposal to introduce a windfall tax that will make hydro and nuclear energy less competitive; 2) streamlining the approval of wind farms; and 3) tax hikes on fossil fuels in heat generation that will mainly affect light fuel oil in domestic heating and other fossil fuels in district heating and industrial cogeneration, and which will increase costs but also ‘clean’ the fuel mix.

A number of policies are under discussion, including: 1) an ambition to phase out coal completely by 2025; 2) limit the use of peat, a domestic biofuel that is not categorised as a renewable; and 3) limitat of oil consumption and support for electric mobility.