Hong Kong

Index rank 40

Balance Score


Energy Sustainability Index Rankings and Balance Score

 2011  2012  2013  Trend Score
Energy Performance  57  54  58   
Energy Security  77  84  99  D
Energy Equity  33  25  24  A
Environmental Sustainability  64  60  58  B
Contextual Performance  3  14  18   
Political Strength  8  10  11   
Societal Strength  15  50  50   
Economic Strength  2  1  15   
Overall Rank  31  38  40  ABD
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Fossil Fuel Reserves

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Key Metrics

Industrial sector (% of GDP) 0.0
TPEP / TPEC  (net energy importer) n.a.
Emission intensity (kg CO2 per USD) 0.14
Energy affordability (USD per kWh) n.a.
GDP / capita (PPP, USD); GDP Group 50,296 (I)
Energy intensity (million BTU per USD) 0.05
CO2 emissions (metric tons CO2 per capita) 6.18
Population Access to Electricity (%) 100.0
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Index Commentary

Hong Kong drops two places in this year’s Index, largely due to further deteriorations in energy security and a small decline in economic strength. While Hong Kong ranks very well on the energy equity dimension, it struggles to replicate this performance on the energy security and environmental sustainability dimensions. Hong Kong’s low energy security ranking is driven primarily by a lack of domestic energy production, and its sole reliance on fossil fuels in power generation. Energy equity is high with relatively affordable energy and full access rate to quality electricity. Environmentally, Hong Kong, like China, suffers from very high levels of air and water pollution. Contextual performance remains strong, with this year’s most notable change being a drop in macroeconomic stability.

Trends and Outlook

As 25% of Hong Kong’s electricity is imported the Hong Kong government has set a goal to ensure that the energy needs of the community are met safely, reliably, efficiently and at reasonable prices, while minimising the environmental impact of electricity generation.

While Hong Kong does not have much indigenous energy resources, active steps have been taken to ensure safe and stable energy supply. To secure clean and reliable electricity supply, Hong Kong signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on energy cooperation with mainland China in August 2008, which provided assurance to the continual supply of nuclear energy and enhanced supply of natural gas from China to Hong Kong. The recent completion and commissioning of the Hong Kong Branch Line of the Second West-East Natural Gas Pipeline has helped ensure a stable and secure supply of natural gas from the Mainland for power generation. The Government has put in place a contingency plan for oil supply that co-ordinates both the public and private sectors in the allocation and consumption of essential oil products in the event of an oil supply disruption. A code of practice has also been put in place that requires major oil companies to maintain a minimum of 30 days’ supply of gas oil and naphtha.

To increase energy diversity natural gas has been introduced as feedstock for electricity generation since the 1990s. Moreover, with the introduction of LPG vehicles around 2000, LPG is used as a fuel for more than 20,000 taxis and light buses. The increased uses of natural gas and LPG reduce Hong Kong’s dependence on conventional oil products.

A wide range of measures to protect the environment and improve air quality have been implemented with first positive results. The Clean Air Plan for Hong Kong, released in March 2013, outlines comprehensively and clearly the challenges Hong Kong is facing with regard to air quality, as well as relevant policies, measures and plans to tackle the issue. Furthermore, a long-term monitoring of marine, river and beach water quality has been underway since 1986.