Swaziland

Index rank 92

Balance Score

BCD

Energy Sustainability Index Rankings and Balance Score

 2011  2012  2013  Trend Score
Energy Performance  103  104  83   
Energy Security  105  104  61  B
Energy Equity  95  92  98  D
Environmental Sustainability  72  78  76  C
         
Contextual Performance  91  98  101   
Political Strength  95  94  105   
Societal Strength  108  98  98   
Economic Strength  70  94  92   
         
Overall Rank  105  107  92  BCD
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Fossil Fuel Reserves

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Key Metrics

Industrial sector (% of GDP) 47.0
TPEP / TPEC  (net energy importer) 0.85
Emission intensity (kg CO2 per USD) 0.16
Energy affordability (USD per kWh) n.a.
GDP / capita (PPP, USD); GDP Group 5,835 (IV)
Energy intensity (million BTU per USD) 0.16
CO2 emissions (metric tons CO2 per capita) n.a.
Population Access to Electricity (%) 35.2
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Index Commentary

Swaziland moves its overall Index ranking up 15 places, largely on the strength of its improvements on the energy security dimension, which is not its strongest. Currently a net energy importer, Swaziland’s primary energy production to consumption ratio has been brought down to almost zero over the last few years, the result of growing domestic production and a slowing rate of growth of consumption. On the energy equity dimension, Swaziland continues to lag behind, largely because only 35% of the country’s population has access to electricity and gasoline prices keep rising. Although it does not have a high emissions intensity, the country struggles with mitigating its impact on the environment, due to disproportionate levels of air and water pollution. Contextual indicators remain low, but relatively constant, with the largest drops seen in political stability and effectiveness of government.

Trends and Outlook

A trend towards an increased share of renewable energy is both power (off and on-grid) and fuel (biofuels) sector is apparent and the development of a renewable energy strategy, independent power producer policy, and feed-in-tariffs are underway.

Coal will continue to play an important role in the energy mix of Swaziland. The country has vast coal reserves and is considering building a 300MW coal fired thermal power station using clean coal technologies, which is expected to supply the country and allow export to the Southern African Power Pool. However, companies are investing in cogeneration to replace coal.

These efforts are expected to improve the country’s energy independence by reducing the heavy reliance on imported energy from South Africa, as well as increasing access to energy access for all citizens while ensuring a good quality of supply. In addition, the country is looking to increase its strategic fuel reserves, enhance bulk purchasing (better prices), explore the possibility of setting up a petroleum products refinery, and tap into the natural gas market in Mozambique.

The recently conducted GHG inventory, submitted to the UNFCCC in March 2012, shows that Swaziland is a net source for GHGs. The energy-related activities account for only 6.7% of total GHG emissions. There is, however, room for pollution reduction. That is why Swaziland has approved waste and air pollution regulations to enforce pollution control.

Policymakers need to: 1) support the adoption of renewable energy technologies and the development of incentives to enable market penetration; and 2) increase the budget for the energy sector to allow economic development and poverty reduction, for example, increased rural electrification and energy access, research and development, development of skills, and capacity building.