Zimbabwe

Index rank 129

Balance Score

DDD

Energy Sustainability Index Rankings and Balance Score

 2011  2012  2013  Trend Score
Energy Performance  129  129  129   
Energy Security  113  113  112  D
Energy Equity  127  125  128  D
Environmental Sustainability  126  127  127  D
         
Contextual Performance  129  127  124   
Political Strength  127  127  127   
Societal Strength  126  123  123   
Economic Strength  120  116  110   
         
Overall Rank  129  129  129  DDD
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Fossil Fuel Reserves

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Key Metrics

Industrial sector (% of GDP) 25.1
TPEP / TPEC  (net energy importer) 0.75
Emission intensity (kg CO2 per USD) 1.69
Energy affordability (USD per kWh) n.a.
GDP / capita (PPP, USD); GDP Group 530 (IV)
Energy intensity (million BTU per USD) 1.79
CO2 emissions (metric tons CO2 per capita) n.a.
Population Access to Electricity (%) 36.9
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Index Commentary

Zimbabwe remains in last place in the overall Index rankings, and performs poorly on all three energy dimensions. With virtually no fossil fuel resources of its own, Zimbabwe faces problems with meeting the growing energy demand from economic and social development. Currently, a little more than half of the electricity generated in Zimbabwe comes from one hydropower station. Because of the high cost of renewable energy infrastructure and technologies, the development of additional electricity generation capacity harnessing the country’s abundant renewable resources remains stalled. Energy equity continues to be very low, as only one-third of Zimbabweans have access to electricity, and gasoline and electricity prices remain unaffordable to the majority of the population. Due to the heavy use of coal and firewood, which leads to deforestation, Zimbabwe is one of the most emissions-heavy, least efficient countries in the world. Zimbabwe still performs poorly on all contextual indicators of political, societal, and economic strength, but small improvements have been made across the board since last year.

Trends and Outlook

Over the past few years Zimbabwe has made continued efforts to improve its energy security, energy access and environmental footprint. Policy developments include: 1) establishment of an independent energy regulator to regulate and supervise the entire energy sector; 2) amendment of the Electricity Act to promote energy efficiency in the public utility; 3) adoption of biofuels and incentives to promote uptake with a minimum target of 20% by 2015; 4) promotion of public private partnerships to spur development in the petroleum and power sector; 5) adoption of a long-term, government-driven renewable energy technologies programme, which encourages independent power producers and public private partnerships to develop renewable energy technologies in Zimbabwe; 6) establishment of a comprehensive household energy plan addressing issues related to shortages, inefficient use of biomass and affordability of modern energy services; and 7) establishment and adoption of energy efficiency programmes.

Key issues policymakers need to focus on are: 1) increase the use of renewable energy, including, biofuels and the use of solar power, by developing appropriate incentives; 2) improve energy efficiency and decrease the high electricity losses, which are currently more than 30% because of inefficiency and obsolete equipment); and 4) develop mechanisms to increase power generation capacity.