Survey of Energy Resources 2007
Geothermal Country Notes
A significant factor in Turkey's high geothermal potential is the fact that the country lies in the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Geothermal exploration began during the 1960s, since when about 170 fields have been identified. Although some of these are high-enthalpy fields, 95% are low-medium enthalpy resources and thus more suited to direct-use applications.
At end-2005, installed direct-use capacity totalled 1 229 MWt, of which 635 MWt provided the space heating and thermal facilities of 103 000 residence-equivalents, 192 MWt provided heating for 63.5 ha of greenhouses and 402 MWt was utilised for bathing and swimming (215 spas).
Following research undertaken in 1968 into using geothermal resources for the production of electricity, a 0.5 MWe pilot plant was installed in 1974 in the Kizildere field (near Denizli in south-western Turkey). In 1984 the 20 MWe single-flash Kizildere geothermal power plant came into operation. In addition to electricity generation, the plant has an integrated liquid CO2 and dry ice production factory that utilises the geothermal fluids.
Various geothermal fields with power generation potential have been discovered and are either undergoing study (Denisli-Sarayköy, 6 MWe; Çanakkale-Tuzla, 7.5 MWe and Kütahya-Simav, 10 MWe) or are under construction (Aydin-Germencik, 25 MWe and Aydin-Salavath, 8 MWe).