Survey of Energy Resources 2007
Hydropower Country Notes
At 30 June 2006, total installed hydro capacity was 6 499 MW, almost exactly one-third of total national generating capacity. According to Hydropower & Dams World Atlas 2006 (HDWA), Pakistan has a gross theoretical hydro potential of approximately 480 TWh/yr, of which some 219 TWh/yr is regarded as technically feasible. The main potential sources of hydropower are on the rivers Indus and Jhelum, plus sites at Swat and Chitral. Both hydro and thermal power plants are being developed to meet the country's demand for electricity, as part of the state utility WAPDA's Vision 2025 programme.
Hydro capacity in operation at the end of 2005 included major plants at Tarbela (3 478 MW) and Mangla (1 000 MW); output during the year was 25.7 TWh, accounting for 29% of Pakistan's electricity generation. Capacity reported to be under construction at end-2005 amounted to 875 MW, the major project being the heightening of the dam at the Mangla HPP, which will raise its capacity by 180 MW. Many other sites have been identified for development in the medium and longer term: the total capacity reported as planned ranges from 8 100 MW to as much as 27 000 MW, if numerous public and private sector projects were eventually to come to fruition.
HDWA quoted Pakistan's small-scale (1-22 MW) hydro potential as 434 GWh/yr, but said that only 68 out of an installed capacity of 107 MW was actually in operation. A total of 550 MW of small hydro capacity was reported to be planned.