Survey of Energy Resources 2007
History of the Oil Shale Industry
The use of oil shale can be traced back to ancient times. By the 17th century, oil shales were being exploited in several countries. One of the interesting oil shales is the Swedish alum shale of Cambrian and Ordovician age that is noted for its alum content and high concentrations of metals including uranium and vanadium. As early as 1637, the alum shales were roasted over wood fires to extract potassium aluminium sulphate, a salt used in tanning leather and for fixing colours in fabrics. Late in the 1800s, the alum shales were retorted on a small scale for hydrocarbons. Production continued through World War II but ceased in 1966 because of the availability of cheaper supplies of petroleum crude oil. In addition to hydrocarbons, some hundreds of tonnes of uranium and small amounts of vanadium were extracted from the Swedish alum shales in the 1960s (Andersson et al., 1985).
An oil shale deposit at Autun, France, was exploited commercially as early as 1839. The Scottish oil shale industry began about 1859, the year that Colonel Drake drilled his pioneer well at Titusville, Pennsylvania. As many as 20 beds of oil shale were mined at different times. Mining continued throughout the 1800s and by 1881 oil shale production had reached 1 million tonnes per year. With the exception of the World War II years, between 1 and 4 million tonnes of oil shale were mined each year in Scotland from 1881 until 1955, when production began to decline, before ceasing in 1962. Canada produced some shale oil from deposits in New Brunswick and Ontario in the mid-1800s.
Common products made from oil shale from these early operations were kerosine and lamp oil, paraffin wax, fuel oil, lubricating oil and grease, naphtha, illuminating gas, and the fertiliser chemical, ammonium sulphate. With the introduction of the mass production of automobiles and trucks in the early 1900s, the supposed shortage of gasoline encouraged the exploitation of oil shale deposits for transportation fuels. Many companies were formed to develop the oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation in the western United States, especially in Colorado. Oil placer claims were filed by the thousand on public lands. The Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 removed oil shale and certain other fossil fuels and minerals on public lands administered by the Federal Government from the status of locatable to leaseable minerals. Under this Act, the ownership of the public mineral lands is retained by the Federal Government and the mineral, e.g. oil shale, is made available for development by private industry under the terms of a mineral lease.
Several oil shale leases on Federal lands in Colorado and Utah were issued to private companies in the 1970s. Large-scale mine facilities were developed on the properties and experimental underground 'modified in-situ' retorting was carried out on one of the lease tracts. However, all work eventually ceased and the leases were relinquished to the Federal Government. Unocal operated the last large-scale experimental mining and retorting facility in the western United States from 1980 until its closure in 1991. The company produced 4.5 million barrels of oil from oil shale averaging 34 gallons of shale oil per ton of rock over the life of the project. After many years in the doldrums, interest in oil shale was rekindled in 2004 (see the Country Note on the USA).
The tonnages mined in six oil shale producing countries for the period 1880 to 2000 are shown in Fig. 3-2 . By the late 1930s, total yearly production of oil shale for these six countries had risen to over 5 million tonnes. Although production fell in the 1940s during World War II, it continued to rise for the next 35 years, peaking in 1979-1980 when in excess of 46 million tonnes of oil shale per year was mined, two-thirds of which was in Estonia. Assuming an average shale oil content of 100 l/tonne, 46 million tonnes of oil shale would be equivalent to 4.3 million tonnes of shale oil. Of interest is a secondary period of high production reached by China in 1958-1960 when as much as 24 million tonnes of oil shale per year were mined at Fushun.
The oil shale industry as represented by the six countries in Fig. 3-2 maintained a combined yearly production of oil shale in excess of 30 million tonnes from 1963 to 1992. From the peak year of 1981, yearly production of oil shale steadily declined to a low of about 15 million tonnes in 1999. Most of this decline is due to the gradual downsizing of the Estonian oil shale industry. This decline was not due to diminishing supplies of oil shale but to the fact that oil shale could not compete economically with petroleum as a fossil energy resource. On the contrary, the potential oil shale resources of the world have barely been touched.