Survey of Energy Resources 2007
Wind Country Notes
Egypt (Arab Republic)
Egypt is endowed with an excellent wind energy potential, especially in the Red Sea coast area where a capacity of 20 000 MW could be achieved, as the annual average wind speed is around 10 m/s.
The Wind Atlas for the Gulf of Suez, published in March 2003, identified the areas of greatest suitability for wind farm projects. It included data for 13 sites covering the period from 1991 to 2001 and was undertaken with the assistance of the Danish Government.
Since 1992, 5 MW wind capacity has been in service at Hurghada. At end-2006 there was 225 MW of installed capacity at Zafarana on the Red Sea coast, developed in cooperation with Denmark, Germany and Spain. The wind farm has 5 separate operating stations:
Zafarana 1 (50 x 600 kW) became operational in April 2001,
Zafarana 2 (55 x 600 kW) in May 2001,
Zafarana 3 (46 x 660 kW) in November 2003,
Zafarana 4 (71 x 660 kW) in June 2004 and
Zafarana 5 (100 x 850 kW) in September 2006.
A further 80 MW of capacity planned for Zafarana 6 is due to begin operating in 2008 with German cooperation. Zafarana 7 and 8, each of 120 MW capacity are planned with commissioning dates in 2009. These two latter plants are located in an extension to the west of the originally designated area in Zafarana and are being developed with help from Denmark and Japan.
A new area at the El-Zayt Gulf, some 150 km south of Zafarana, has been identified as being suitable for the installation of wind farms. At the present time feasibility studies are being undertaken for two plants - one of 80 MW with German assistance and another of 220 MW with Japanese assistance.
The Wind Atlas for the Gulf of Suez has been expanded to cover the entire country and the data extended to cover the period to 2005. The resulting Wind Atlas for Egypt was published in December 2005. It included a study of the migratory bird routes in the Suez Gulf region. This area was found to be a pathway for some 2.5 to 3.5 million birds each year - an essential element to consider when EIAs are undertaken as part of feasibility studies.
Egypt's national energy planning incorporates a target of 3% of electricity demand to be met by renewables by 2010. It is expected that this will be mainly satisfied by wind power.