Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009
SER 2007 version >Hydropower Country Notes update
The only sizeable hydro plant under construction is Los Caracoles (132 MW). The level of the Yacyréta reservoir is being raised, which will increase the bi-national power plant's capacity (see note on Paraguay). Planned hydro developments total around 9 000 MW, including two major bi-national projects - Garabí on the river Uruguay (a joint project with Brazil) and Corpus Christi on the Paraná (jointly with Paraguay).
Two hydro plants are under construction, the larger of which is the 140 MW Bogong plant in the state of Victoria.
Bhutan is reported to have had two major HPPs under construction in 2008 - Punatsangchhu I (1 095 MW) and Dagachhu (114 MW). A further 2 400 MW of capacity was at the planning stage, notably Punatsangchhu II (circa 1 000 MW) and Mangdechhu (circa 720 MW).
Bolivia is working with Brazil on a mammoth joint project to exploit the hydro-electric potential of the Rio Madeira complex in the Amazon region. Within this project are the 800 MW Cachuela Esperanza plant sited entirely in Bolivia and the Guajara-Mirim plant (3 000 MW) to be located on the border between the two countries.
Brazil's participation with Bolivia in the Rio Madeira scheme comprises the Jirau (3 326 MW) and Santo Antonio (3 168 MW) projects, which have recently been auctioned to different consortia for development. In the country as a whole there are numerous hydro plants in the course of construction, totalling some 5 500 MW, while planned capacity is in the order of 33 000 MW.
The Kamchay hydro scheme (194 MW), which will on completion virtually double Cambodia's hydro capacity, is under construction.
A contract was signed in August 2007 for the construction of the 200 MW Memve'ele hydro plant.
In Québec, Péribonka (385 MW) is now in operation, while Eastmain 1A (893 MW) is scheduled for completion in 2011-2012. The 120 MW Brilliant expansion scheme in British Columbia was finished in 2007, while construction of the 200 MW Wuskwatim hydro project in northern Manitoba is on course for completion in 2012. A considerable amount of refurbishment and upgrading of hydro plants is being carried out at various locations.
The principal schemes under construction are La Higuera (155 MW) and La Confluencia (145 MW).
China leads the world in hydro-electric development, with some 80 GW under construction. Besides the 22 500 MW Three Gorges project, which is scheduled for completion in 2009, there are many other massive plants in hand. Examples of such projects include Xiluodu (12 600 MW), Xiangjiaba (6 000 MW), Longtan (5 400 MW), Laxiwa (4 200 MW) and Pubugou (3 600 MW); the last three are all due for completion in 2009-2010, the other two in 2015-2016. Planned schemes include two huge hydro plants on the Jinsha Jiang (River Yangtze): Wudongde (9 000 MW) and Baihetan (12 600 MW).
The Porce III hydro plant (660 MW) is scheduled for completion in mid-2010. Approximately 10 000 MW of hydro capacity is planned for medium/long-term implementation.
Congo (Democratic Republic)
The World Energy Council is facilitating the development of the Congo River hydropower projects. WEC states that 'the Inga Projects offer a unique opportunity to provide affordable and clean electricity to more than 500 million Africans who do not have it today'.
A WEC Workshop on 'Financing the Inga hydropower Projects' was held in London in April 2008. The main objective of the Workshop was to identify the key requirements and potential partners for an accelerated and sustainable development of the overall Inga hydropower projects, namely: the rehabilitation of existing installations including Inga 1 & 2 and the development of Inga 3 (4 320 MW) and Grand Inga (40 000 MW). The WEC also identified basic principles to move forward the Inga Projects. The Workshop recognised the sense of urgency to progress the projects and to coordinate the planning process in an orderly and timely manner. But these will highly depend on factors such as the improvement of the political situation in the DRC, strong government support for the projects and a high level of cooperation/integration with the key stakeholders.
Out of over 200 MW of hydro capacity under construction, Costa Rica's major current project is the 128 MW Pirris plant, which is due for completion in 2010. Large schemes reported to be at the feasibility stage in 2008 were Diquís (622 MW) and Reventazón (298 MW).
Ecuador has a number of small-to-medium sized hydro schemes under construction, including San Francisco (230 MW), Toachi-Pilaton (228 MW) and Mazar (190 MW). It is also planning to build a further eight HPPs, with an aggregate capacity of 2 766 MW. The largest of the planned plants is Coca Coda Sinclair (1 500 MW).
The Bui HPP (400 MW) is under construction on the Black Volta, with completion scheduled for 2012.
Construction of the 100 MW Amaila Falls run-of-river hydro project on the Kuribrong River may get under way in 2009.
The 690 MW Kárahnjúkar hydro scheme came into operation in November 2007. A number of other projects have been awarded licences or are at the planning stage.
A number of large schemes have been completed recently, including Dul Hasti (390 MW) and Omkareshwar (520 MW). India has a massive programme of hydro-electric development in hand, with around 7 000 MW under construction. Among the larger projects are Subansiri Lower (2 000 MW), Parbati II (800 MW) and the Kol dam (800 MW). Work is now going ahead at Rampur (412 MW) and Baglidar (450 MW), along with many others.
Two medium-sized projects under construction are Asahan 3 (154 MW), due to be completed in 2011, and Asahan 1 (180 MW), for completion in 2012.
Iran (Islamic Republic)
In 2008, Hydropower & Dams World Atlas reported that Iran had 7 442 MW of hydro capacity under construction and a further 17 500 MW in an advanced stage of planning.
In 2008 Japan had about 7 GW of hydro capacity under construction, of which nearly 90% was accounted for by four large pumped-storage schemes.
Six hydro schemes, with a total capacity of 2 131 MW, were under construction in 2008, with twelve more totalling 3 230 MW reported by Hydropower & Dams World Atlas to be 'at advanced stages of negotiation'.
Out of a number of hydro plants at the tendering stage in 2008, the largest were Chebren (330 MW) on the Black river and Galishte (195 MW) on the river Vardar.
Construction of the 2 400 MW Bakun hydro plant continued throughout 2008; completion is scheduled for 2010.
The El Cajón HPP (750 MW) commenced commercial operation in 2007. Construction has begun at La Yesca (750 MW) and La Parota (900 MW). Generating capacity at La Villita Michoacán is being boosted by 400 MW, and at Infiernillo Guerrero by 200 MW, through refurbishment and uprating programmes.
The South Bank Powerhouse (5 x 415 MW) at Cahora Bassa on the Zambezi has been refurbished in recent years. A project for a 1 245 MW North Bank Powerhouse is under study.
Although only about 135 MW of hydro capacity was under construction in 2008, at least three large projects - West Seti (750 MW), Upper Karnali (300 MW) and Upper Tama Koshi (309 MW) - were expected to go ahead in the near term.
Two major HPPs currently under construction in Norway - Nit Tying (168 MW) and Over Otta (171 MW) - are among the largest hydro projects under way in Western Europe.
In 2008 the 963 MW Neelum Jhelum hydro scheme was reported to be going ahead, with contractors and consultants appointed. The 5 400 MW Bunji project has been the subject of a feasibility study. A number of other very large hydro projects are being studied, including the 4 000 MW Dasu scheme.
A 223 MW hydro station is under construction at Changuinola in western Panama, near the border with Costa Rica.
The level of the Yacyréta reservoir is being raised, which will enable the bi-national plant's 20 turbines to operate at or near their design capacity of 155 MW each.
In May 2008 Peru agreed with Brazil to build the 1 400 MW Inambari hydro plant in eastern Peru, to help serve the Brazilian electricity market.
The 225 MW Agus III hydro scheme on Mindinao is being carried out by a private company, with completion scheduled for 2011.
Government approval has been given for the construction of the 170 MW Baixo Sabor dam and hydro plant on the river Sabor, a tributary of the Douro in northern Portugal. Several other schemes are likely to go ahead in the short/medium term, including Alqueva II (240 MW) at an existing hydro site in the south of the country.
Some 7 000 MW of hydro plant is under construction, including two very large schemes which had both been stalled for many years: the 3 000 MW Boguchany plant on the river Angara in central Siberia, and the 2 000 MW Bureya project on the Far Eastern river of the same name.
The 1 250 MW Merowe hydro plant was reported in 2008 to be nearing completion, with impounding under way.
The Sangtuda I plant (670 MW) on the river Vakhsh has been completed, with the first of its four 167.5 MW turbines starting up in January 2008. Work on the Rogun dam, also on the Vakhsh, has been halted again. A number of medium- and large-sized hydro projects are under planning or being considered.
The 900 MW Stieglers Gorge hydro project on the river Rufiji appears to be moving ahead, with the Canadian-registered company Energem Resources acquiring a 40% stake in the scheme.
Turkey has a large programme of hydro building, with some 4 000 MW under construction and about 19 000 MW planned. After much debate, engineering and consultancy contracts were awarded for the Ilisu scheme (1 200 MW) in late 2007.
Following a successful financial closure at the end of 2008, contracts have been awarded for the 250 MW Bujagali scheme.
Work continued throughout 2008 on the construction of the 100 MW Glendoe hydro scheme in Scotland, the first sizeable such plant to be built in the UK for fifty years. The scheme is expected to begin operating in 2009.
The two large hydro schemes under construction in Venezuela are Tocoma (2 160 MW), the last major project on the lower Caroní, and La Vueltosa (514 MW) in the Andean region.
A massive programme of hydro development is being carried out, with around 7 500 MW under construction and many other schemes at the feasibility stage. The largest hydro project currently under way is the 2 400 MW Son La scheme.
Economic and technical feasibility studies are being conducted on the Kafue Lower IPP project (750 MW), which would provide a much-needed boost to Zambia's hydro capacity.