Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009
SER 2007 version >Part II: Nucear Country Notes update
Atucha-II, a 692 MWe PHWR which is being completed with assistance from Canada, is expected to begin operating by October 2010, according to a government minister in August 2008. Construction of the unit began in 1981 but work was halted for more than ten years from 1995.
It was reported in November 2007 that the Armenian Government had approved the closure of Medzamor-2, the country's sole NPP; no date for closure was given. The USA has indicated its support for the construction of a replacement plant.
In October 2007 the President of Belarus stated that construction of the country's first NPP was planned to start in 2008. The Government has indicated that it envisages the installation of two units with a combined capacity of 1 000 MWe between 2013 and 2015, with two more units planned for operation by 2025. High-level talks on the project have been held both with China and Russia.
According to a press report in July 2008, the completion of Angra-3 has become more doubtful following the setting of 60 exacting conditions by Brazil's environment minister. However, Angra-3 took a step forward in March 2009 with the granting of an environmental licence.
In September 2008, the Brazilian nuclear energy company Eletronuclear submitted a plan for six new reactors to the Government.
A contract for two Russian VVER-1000 reactors (each 953 MWe net) to be installed at Belene was signed in January 2008. The Government issued a construction permit for the plant in July of the same year.
The Ontario provincial government announced in June 2008 that the Darlington NPP had been chosen as the site for two new reactors. A suitable site for further new reactors is being sought in the province of Alberta. Meanwhile, refurbishment continues at Bruce A1 and A2, scheduled for completion in 2009 and 2010 respectively.
Proposals have been made to use electricity and steam from nuclear plants in thermal in-situ projects for the recovery of bitumen from oil sands, instead of using natural gas.
Tianwan 2, a Russian-built 1 000 MWe (gross) WWER, began commercial operation on 16 August 2007. Excavation of the site for the Sanmen NPP in Zhejiang province got under way in February 2008. Shortly afterwards it was reported that an agreement had been signed for the construction of China's first inland NPP at Xianning City, Hubei. In November work commenced on new nuclear units at Ningde and Fuqing, both in Fujian province. Construction of two new reactors at Fangjiashan, near the existing NPP at Qinshan in Zhejiang, began just before the end of 2008.
In July 2008 the Czech utility CEZ asked the Ministry of the Environment to carry out an environmental impact assessment for two additional reactors at the Temelin NPP site.
The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communication announced in March 2008 that it was going to compile a shortlist of possible sites for Estonia's first NPP.
The two reactors at Loviisa were granted licences in July 2007 allowing them to operate until 2027 and 2030 respectively. In October 2008 TVO announced a further delay in the construction of the third unit at Olkiluoto, which may not now be completed until 2012. Fennovoima, Fortum and TVO have each applied to the Government for a decision-in-principle on the construction of a new NPP.
Construction of the first EPR (1 650 MWe) began at Flamanville (Normandy) towards the end of 2007, with completion scheduled for 2012. Work on a second EPR is planned to start at Penly in 2012.
It was reported in July 2007 that Paks-1 and -4 had each been uprated to approximately 500 MWe, some 8% higher than their original design capacity. Work on uprating Paks-2 and -3 was planned to start in 2008.
In June 2008 India was reported to be suffering from a chronic shortage of nuclear fuel, which had obliged its NPPs to run at about half their rated capacity. In December of the same year India reaffirmed its commitment to the thorium fuel cycle, proposing an eventual fleet of a dozen reactors using this principle.
Up to six of AREVA's EPRs could be constructed at Jaitapur, Maharashtra state, following the signing of an MOU in February 2009.
A preliminary deal signed in July 2007 envisages the use of Korean Republic technology for Indonesia's first two NPPs.
Iran (Islamic Republic)
The final shipment of nuclear fuel for Iran's first NPP, Bushehr-1, arrived from Russia in January 2008. During February 2009, a 'pre-commission' test was carried out using 'virtual' fuel.
Twenty years after the closure of Italy's nuclear power industry the current Government is strongly supportive of its revival. In February 2009 a government department for nuclear energy, renewables and energy efficiency was established.
In November 2008, the start-up of the Ohma NPP was put back from early 2012 to late 2014. Plans were announced in January 2009 for a 1 590 MWe plant to be built at Sendai on Kyushu, to come into operation in 2019. Tomari-3 is scheduled to begin commercial operation in December 2009.
Extensive testing of the remodelled Monju fast-breeder reactor began at the end of August 2007 and was scheduled to last a year, with the restart set for October 2008. However in January 2009, further delays in safety checks were reported to have set back operational status by several months.
In September 2007 the USA and Jordan agreed to cooperate on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In July of the following year it was reported that Jordan had signed agreements with both Canada and the UK for assistance in advancing its plans for nuclear power and desalination. Jordan's target date for the operation of its first NPP is 2015.
A government plan to install two small VBER-300 nuclear reactors by 2015-2016 was announced in November 2007. The first was expected to be sited at Aktau, where the country's sole previous NPP, a small fast-breeder reactor, was sited.
Ministerial approval was granted in September 2007 for the construction of two APR-1400 reactors, Shin Kori -3 and -4. A construction licence for the two units was issued in April 2008.
In July 2007 France and Libya signed a memorandum of understanding for a joint project to construct a nuclear-powered desalination plant in Libya.
On 4 July 2007 the President of Lithuania signed into law a bill for the construction of a new NPP, designed to replace the output of Ignalina-1 (shut down in 2004) and Ignalina-2 (due for closure in 2009).
The Malaysian utility Tenaga was reported in July 2008 to have set up, at the request of the Government, a task force to examine the possibility of constructing an NPP in the interior of the country.
The Federal Government has approved the technical framework for fast-tracking the deployment of NPPs in Nigeria. The country's nuclear roadmap envisages the installation of 000 MWe by 2017 and 4 000 MWe by 2027.
It was reported in June 2008 that Pakistan was planning the construction of two new 320 MWe NPPs at the Chasma site.
After a government decision in 2007 to re-examine the scope for using nuclear power in the Philippines, the feasibility of rehabilitating the mothballed Bataan NPP was examined by an IAEA team early in the following year. The Korean Republic has reportedly also offered assistance.
In early 2009 the Polish Government was reported to be relying on nuclear to increase the country's energy security, with a plan for two NPPs in Poland and a share in a new one in Lithuania.
Cernavoda-2 entered commercial service in October 2007, having achieved grid connection on 7 August. Also in August 2007, the Government of Romania invited bids for the construction of Cernavoda-3 and -4. By March 2008 it was reported that negotiations had been completed for six European utilities to participate in a joint venture with Nuclearelectrica SA to complete and operate Cernavoda-3 and -4.
Work was resumed in November 2007 on Kalinin-4, originally begun in 1986 but halted in 1991. In March 2008 an overall plan for siting new NPPs was announced, involving up to 42 new reactors by 2020.
Construction officially started in June 2008 on the first reactor at Novovoronezh Phase II. Approval was given in August for the construction of the 2 400 MWe Baltic NPP in Kaliningrad; the first unit is planned to start up in 2015. It was reported in October 2008 that construction of the first new reactor at Leningrad Phase II had begun.
Under a contract awarded in September 2007, Bohinice-3 and -4 will be uprated by a total of 120 MWe in 2010. A tender was launched in August 2008 for the completion of two reactors at the Mochovce site and by November work was reported to be under way.
Work on the demonstration Pebble Bed Reactor continued throughout 2008. In December 2008 Eskom cancelled the construction of a second NPP and froze long-term plans for up to 17 more. Retrofitting the low-pressure turbines at the Koeberg NPP will lead to a 65 MWe increase in generating capacity.
The uprating of Sweden's reactors is proceeding. Work on the four-unit site at Ringhals to raise its capacity by 495 MWe was carried out in 2007, while there is to be a 160 MWe uprate of the Forsmark-3 reactor. Sweden's coalition government annulled the country's anti-nuclear policies early in 2009.
In December 2008 framework permit applications were filed for new NPPs to replace three of Switzerland's ageing reactors at Beznau and Mühleberg.
The Thai energy minister announced in November 2007 that between 2008 and 2011 Thailand would carry out preparatory work on nuclear projects.
A tender was launched in March 2008 for the construction of a nuclear power plant at Akkuyu on the Mediterranean coast. By April, four companies were reported to have already submitted bids in this connection.
According to a government minister, speaking in September 2008, construction of two new NPPs at Khmelnitsky will commence in 2010, with completion of the first unit expected by the end of 2016.
United Arab Emirates
In April 2008 the Government of the UAE published a comprehensive national policy on nuclear energy, which envisages the eventual installation of a series of NPPs in the Emirates.
Near the end of 2008 it was announced that Oldbury, the UK's oldest operational NPP, which had been due to close down at the end of 2008, would continue in service for about another two years. In January 2009 the UK Government invited the nuclear industry to nominate (within two months) sites for the first wave of new NPPs.
United States of America
Approval was given in August 2007 for the completion of Watts Bar unit 2, 35 years after construction began. It was reported in September 2008 that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission had approved uprates totalling 249 MWe to seven reactors over the last year.