Biomass in Canada

In 2008, Canada had 11.856 million tonnes of raw municipal solid waste and 36 million tonnes of forestry/wood processing material available. Biogas capacity from the municipal solids was 0.003 TJ/yr, and the yield was 51.5 GJ/tonne; the electricity generating capacity was 211 187 kW and the total energy produced directly from combustion of municpal solids was 1.688 TJ. The solid fuel production capacity for the forestry materials was 37 000 TJ/yr, the yield was 18.5 GJ/tonne of solid fuel, the actual production was 37 000 TJ and the electricity generating capacity and actual generation were 1 075 140 kW (in 2007) and 23 069 TJ respectively.

The wood solid fuel production was 101 808 TJ and for corn, the ethanol production capacity, yield and actual production were 24 341 TJ/yr, 9.49 GJ/tonne and 21 524 TJ respectively. The ethanol production capacity for wheat was 8 703 TJ/yr, the yield was 8.9 GJ/tonne and the actual production was 7 563 TJ; for wheat straw, the ethanol production capacity was 47 TJ/yr.

The biodiesel production capacity for canola was 2 932 TJ/yr and the biodiesel yield was 37.8 GJ/tonne; for fish oil, the production capacity was 5 209 TJ/yr, the yield was 37.8 GJ/tonne and the biogas production was 1.348 TJ.

Over 30.4 million tonnes of waste was generated in Canada during 2002. This translates into 971 kg per person. Households accounted for 39% of this total, with the remainder generated in the industrial, commercial and institutional sector, construction, renovation and demolition. As a country, Canada still disposes of more than 78% of waste.

There are approximately 50 large municipal waste water facilities in Canada with a potential to produce 84 million m3/yr methane with a wet calorific value of 37 300 kJ/m3.

Canadian wood pellet production during 2008 was 2 million tonnes; domestic sales were 250 000 tonnes with 450 000 tonnes sold to the USA and 1 300 000 tonnes overseas. A typical Canadian wood pellet specification has a net calorific value of 18.5 GJ/tonne.

Many food and beverage companies currently produce and use biogas in their operations, but details are proprietary information.

During 2008 Canada imported 570 million litres of ethanol, 85% of which originated in the USA.