Top countries in the region by coal proved recoverable reserves in 2015 include: Australia (76,400 Mt), Indonesia (28,017 Mt), Thailand (1,239 Mt), New Zealand (571 Mt) and Vietnam (150 Mt). Top producing countries are: Australia (484.5 Mt), Indonesia (392 Mt), Vietnam (41.5 Mt), Thailand (15.2 Mt) and New Zealand (3.4 Mt).

Australia has immense coal reserves all over the country and in Northern Territory and is a major global producer and exporter. Australia’s share of global coal production was around 6% in 2016. Around 80% of coal is produced in open-cut mines, which allows higher rates of resource recovery in a more cost effective way. About 98% of the country’s bituminous coal is produced in just two states – Queensland (52%) and New South Wales (46%). The country consumed only 46.6 million tonnes of oil equivalent from the 275 mtoe produced in 2015. The largest consumers of Australian coal in 2014 include Japan, China, South Korea, India and the European market.

Indonesia is a key player in the international coal market, with vast reserves, high production and export levels. It is one of the world’s top exporters of thermal coal, but production levels are estimated to fall due to a severe reduction of coal miners’ profits (decline by 60% from 2011 to 2014) and declining exports to China. The oversupply of coal will most likely feed the power sector in the country, as government plans to increase power generation by 35 GW by 2019, out of which around 20 GW are expected to be coal-fired plants. The largest coal fired plant is under construction, the PLTU Batang, and will have a capacity of 2 GW. Some of the coal projects in the country include: IndoMet (resources – 1.3 billion tonnes), Tutupan (resources – 668 Mt, latest output – 42 million toones per annum) and Wara (resources – 176 Mt, latest output – 3 mtpa) operated by Adaro Energy; Lati (resources – 745 Mt, latest output – 11 mtpa), Binungan (resources – 300 Mt, latest output – 5 mtpa) and Sambarata (resources – 190 Mt, latest output – 4 mtpa) operated by Berau Coal; Satui (resources –34.2 Mt, latest output – 5 mtpa) and Mulia (resources – 239 Mt, latest output – 5 mtpa) operated by PT Arutmin Indonesia.

Vietnam has around 200 coal mines and major coal producers include Vietnam Coal and Minerals Industrial Group (Vinacomin) with 41 Mt of anthracite coal in 2013, Vietmindo with 3 Mt in 2013, Dong Bac Corporation with 3 Mt production in 2013 and 319 Corporation. The country shifted from being a net coal exporter to a net coal importer. Increasing energy demand will most likely impact coal demand to surge to 86.4 Mt/year from an estimated 47.5 Mt in 2016, according to a 2016 government report. In addition, it is estimated that coal demand will reach 121.5 Mt/year by 2025 and 156.6 Mt/year by 2030. Power sector is the main consumer of coal with around 70% of consumption in 2016. Government estimates show significant amounts of coal resources, located in the northern basin of the Red River Delta with 42 billion Mt of coal resources, followed by the north-eastern basin with 4 billion Mt. One of the main projects include the construction of Duyen Hai coal terminal in the southern province of Tra Vinh by 2020, with a maximum capacity of 40 Mt/year of coal.

Source: BMI Research, BP (2016)

Regional Coal Recoverable Reserves

  Loading graph...

Coal Production

Coal Production656Mtoe per year

Coal Recoverable Reserves74.5thousand Mtoe

Coal Recoverable Reserves by region

  Loading graph...

Coal Recoverable Reserves by country

  Loading graph...

Top Coal producing countries

  Loading graph...