Sweden

Index rank 02

Balance Score

AAA

Energy Trilemma Index Rankings and Balance Score

 2013  2014  2015  Trend Score
Energy Performance  4  2  2   
Energy Security  24  20  16  A
Energy Equity  14  19  17  A
Environmental Sustainability  6  6  9  A
         
Contextual Performance  5  5  7   
Political Strength  4  5  4   
Societal Strength  2  1  4   
Economic Strength  26  16  19   
         
Overall Rank  3  2  2  AAA
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Fossil Fuel Reserves

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Key Metrics

Industrial sector (% of GDP) 33.4
TPEP / TPEC  (net energy importer) 0.64
Emission intensity (kg CO2 per USD) 0.11
Energy affordability (USD per kWh) 0.21
GDP / capita (PPP, USD); GDP Group 44,849 (I)
Energy intensity (million BTU per USD) 0.15
CO2 emissions (metric tons CO2 per capita) 3.83
Population Access to Electricity (%) 100.0
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Index Commentary

Sweden continues its exceptional performance in the Index and maintains its position overall. As a �Pack leader�, Sweden exhibits strong, well-balanced performance on all three energy dimensions. Energy security improves slightly as the country�s energy production to consumption ratio betters. Performance on the energy equity dimension also improves as electricity and gasoline prices decline. The country�s mitigation of its impact on the environment continues to rank among the best in the world, with comparatively low emissions intensity and air and water pollution levels. Part of Sweden�s success on this dimension is undoubtedly due to its diverse electricity mix, with 98% of its electricity generation coming from low- or zero-carbon sources. Only 2% of electricity is generated using fossil fuels, and almost all oil plants have been either shut down or relegated to reserve use. Sweden performs extremely well on indicators of political and societal strength, with economic strength trailing slightly behind due solely to the country�s high cost of living.

Trends and Outlook

In order to maintain a high Index ranking, a key issue for Sweden is to make the transportation sector sustainable. Currently, the transportation sector (except trains, metro and trams) relies on fossil fuels. Special policies and financial support to incentivise the purchase of electric cars are in place, but results are not yet fulfilling expectations. The EU target to increase the share of biofuels used in transport to 10% by 2020 will be exceeded as the share has reached 18% already. This is mostly due to a rapid increase of blending of HVO-biodiesel and other biofuels in gasoline and diesel, and an increased number of cars running on biogas.

Sweden has had a successful market-based green certificate system for promoting renewable energy sources (RES) in place from 2003, and since 2012 this is a joint system with Norway.

Policymakers need to focus on finding a solution to replace the existing 10 nuclear reactors that will be taken out of operation gradually, to meet the future electricity demand. The first reactors are expected to close between 2018 and 2020. Vattenfall has taken a policy decision to close the two smallest reactors in Ringhals and E.ON is expected to close the smallest reactor in Oskarshamn within the same timeframe. Although the application to build new reactors has not been formally withdrawn, Vattenfall has currently stopped any further work on the application. In addition to finding measures to meet the EU CO2 reduction and RES targets, energy efficiency needs to be a top priority.