In Europe, the energy transition has taken very different forms depending on the committed countries and the priorities they set: climate change, energy intensity reduction, disengagement from fossil fuels, development of renewable energies, phasing out of nuclear power, citizens’ aspirations for territorial development, energy sobriety, economic competitiveness and purchasing power, etc. These objectives, which are sometimes difficult to reconcile, have a cost.


Asking the question of costs in a specific way is an unusual but crucial question in assessing energy transitions and the consequences of any acceleration of change. Asking the question of costs means obliging oneself to characterize energy transitions and reflect, if it makes sense, on what an “absence of transition” would have been; the Forum will focus in particular on three major issues: housing, electricity generation and urban transport. Asking the question of costs also means asking the unavoidable question: “Who will pay?” and therefore those of burden sharing and social feasibility of transitions. Finally, asking the question of costs means, for an objective that is very often linked to the climate, seeking the most cost-effective trajectories and specifying the tools and policies to commit to them.


The Forum will be organized in six sessions, following a keynote speech of Jean-Bernard Lévy, chairman and CEO of EDF and chairman of Conseil Français de l’Énergie.

  1. The different paths of energy transition and their costs
  2. Energy efficiency in housing: the cost-efficiency of domestic energy retrofit policies
  1. Decarbonation of the electric mix: the overcosts of technology-oriented policies
  2. The macroeconomic costs-advantages of the transition to low-carbon urban mobility
  3. Who pays? Burden sharing and social feasibility of different transitions policies
  4. How to reduce the cost of transition to a low carbon objective?